Flora

FLORA

In the Caucasus ecoregion the reserve is known for its rich flora composition and high density of species. On the territory of the reserve, making only 1% of the whole territory  of Armenia there are 1,849 species of high vascular plants, which makes more than the half of the flora of Armenia (more than 3,800 species total) and about 1/3 of the wealth of the Caucasus flora (about 6,000 species total). They are represented in 588 genera and consist of 107 families. Moreover, the reserve is a shelter to numerous rare species and the species growing only in the reserve (endemic species). More than 80 species are involved in the Red Data Book of Armenia, and 24 species are endemic.

Forest coverage is 16%. Glades, scrubs and shrubs occupy 20% and the remaining 64% is represented by different types of symbiosis of high-mountainous zone.

Another valuable peculiarity of the reserve is the presence of mixed forests consisting of different combinations of juniper and deciduous tree species oak, ash, maple, wall-nut and others as well as the diversity and rich genetic fund of certain wild fruit trees such as pear. Khosrov’s pear tree attracts special attention here; one can find it only in the canyon of Khosrov.

One can find the following families widespread in the reserve: Asteraceal 280 species, Poaceal 174, Fabaceal 154, Lamiaceal 102, Brassicaceal 99, Caryophyllaceal 97, Rosaceal 92, Apiaceal 74,

Scrophulariaceal 74, Boraginaceal 57, Liliaceal 57, Chenopodiaceal 50, Ranunculaceal43, Rubiaceal 30, Cyperaceal 27, Orobanchaceal 27.

The flora species spread in the reserve are divided into: tree-68, bush /shrub-90, small bush /shrub – 50, semi-bush / shrub-50, small semi-shrub / bush-25, liana -2.Vegetation composition / structure changes mainly due to the altitude above sea level.

The flora species spread in the reserve are divided into: tree-68, bush /shrub-90, small bush /shrub – 50, semi-bush / shrub-50, small semi-shrub / bush-25, liana -2.Vegetation composition / structure changes mainly due to the altitude above sea level.

On the foothill and low mountainous zones at the altitudes from 800 till 1200-1300 and sometimes up to 1400 m the wormwood semi-deserts are common.

Mountain steppes, arid sparse forests and oak forests are represented in the middle mountain zone (1400-2200 m above sea level). The southern steep sunny and dry slopes are covered by juniper trees with beautiful conic crowns, which often formopen woodlands with specific xeric vegetation. Juniper open woodlands in Garni district are so sparse that make the landscapes with juniper trees located rather distantly from each other on roundish mountainous slopes of the reserve, which can be observed from the pagan temple Garni. Oak forests mainly cover northern and western mountainous slopes. Sometimes they make rather dense homogenous oak forests. In some places there are less dense as well as mixed oak forests with accompanying species ash, mountain ash, different species of maple and pear and others. Bushes are abundant in the forests, represented by different species of viburnum, honeysuckle, dog rose and hawthorn. The vegetation in the forests is rich in grass.

Meadow vegetation covers the altitudes from 2100-2200 up to 2600-2800 m.

A rich botanical collection one can find in the museum of Khosrov Forest State Reserve that was collected and are maintained over many years.